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Wang, J. C. K., Liu, W. C., & Abdul Kahlid. (2006). Effects of a five-day Outward Bound course on female students in Singapore. Australian Journal of Outdoor Education, 10(2), 20-28.
It is commonly claimed that outdoor adventure programmes produce positive changes in participants by exposing them
to adventure activities designed to encourage self-discovery and character building. Previous studies have focused on the
impact of rehabilitative adventure therapy programmes and adventure education programmes for male dominated or coed
environments, however little is known about girls’ motivations for participating in adventure educational programmes
and their associated outcomes. The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of a five-day Outward Bound
course among young, female secondary students in Singapore. A total of 149 female students aged from 13 to 16 years from
a single cohort took part in the study. Results showed that the course had positive impacts on the participants’ social skills,
interpersonal skills, leadership, and self-esteem. The effect sizes ranged from .24 to .64, which were consistent with the
moderate change of previous outdoor programmes effect size research (Hattie, Marsh, Neill, & Richards, 1997). In addition,
intrinsic motivation positively predicted participants’ satisfaction level after the course. Overall, this study showed that
outdoor adventure programmes can have a positive impact on adolescent Singaporean girls.
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