Now showing 1 - 10 of 73
  • Publication
    Open Access
    Comfort and ground reaction forces in flat-footed female runners: Comparison of low-dye taping versus sham taping
    (2020)
    Koh, Alvina Hui Li
    ;
    Lin, Wei-Hsiu
    ;
    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of low-Dye tape on comfort and ground reaction forces (GRF) in flat-footed female runners. A randomized cross-over study was conducted on 15 flat-footed female recreational runners. Participants ran at three speeds (9, 10, 11 km/h) under two conditions: low-Dye and sham taping. Comfort level was assessed using a 150-mm visual analog scale. GRF data were collected using an instrumented treadmill. Stance time, peak forces, and loading rates were extracted. Low-Dye taping showed a lower comfort level (low-Dye, 63.8 (24.3) mm, sham 122.0 (16.0) mm, mean difference [95% confident intervals], -58.2 [68.2, 48.2] mm, p < 0.001). For all biomechanical variables, there was no interaction (taping condition a speed) effect or difference between taping conditions. As running speed increased, there was a decrease in stance time (p < 0.001) and increase in loading rate (p = 0.009), impact peak (p = 0.004), active peak (p < .001), breaking peak (p < 0.001), propulsive peak (p < 0.001), medial peak (p < 0.001), and lateral peak (p < 0.001). Compared with sham taping, application of low-Dye taping was less comfortable but did not alter running ground reaction forces among flat-footed female runners.
      275  100
  • Publication
    Open Access
    Immediate comfort perception of 3D-printed foot orthoses in individuals with unilateral heel pain
    (2021)
    Ho, Malia Tsai Djun
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    Nguyen, Julie
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    Talbot, Kerwin
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    Heales, Luke
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    Kean, Crystal
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    ;
    Stanton, Robert
    Background: Custom-made foot orthoses (FOs) play an integral part in managing foot disorders. Traditional FO fabrication is time-consuming and labor intensive. Three-dimensional (3D) printed FOs save time and cost compared with the traditional manufacturing process. To date, the differences in dimensions and comfort perception of these orthoses have not been compared in a pathological population. Objective: Compare the dimensions between 3D-printed and traditionally made FOs and comfort perception between 3D-printed, traditionally made, and no FOs in individuals with flatfeet and unilateral heel pain. Study design: Within-subject single-blinded randomized crossover study design. Methods: Thirteen participants had custom-made FOs using 3D-printing and traditional processes. Orthotic lengths, widths, arch heights, and heel cup heights were compared. Participants performed walking trials under three conditions: (1) no orthoses, (2) 3D-printed orthoses, and (3) traditionally made orthoses. Comfort perception was recorded. Orthotic dimensions were compared using paired t tests, and comfort perception were compared using one-way multiple analysis of variance and Bonferroni post hoc tests. Results: Three-dimensional–printed orthoses were wider, have higher arch heights, and heel cup heights compared with traditionally made FOs (medium to large effect sizes). There was a difference in comfort perception between the three orthotic conditions, F(12,62) = 1.99, P = 0.04; Wilk Λ = 0.521, ηp2= 0.279. Post hoc tests show that there is no difference in comfort perception between the 3D-printed and traditionally made FOs. Both FOs were significantly more comfortable than no orthoses. Conclusions: Three-dimensional printing seems to be a viable alternative orthotic fabrication option. Future studies should compare the biomechanical effects of 3D-printed and traditionally made FOs.
    WOS© Citations 2  243  32
  • Publication
    Open Access
    Subjective evaluation of running footwear depends on country and assessment method: A bi-national study
    (2015) ;
    Lim, Chen Yen
    ;
    Ding, Rui
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    Sterzing, Thorsten
    This study examined 1) the perception of running shoes between China (Beijing) and Singapore, and 2) whether running shoe preference depended on assessment methods. One hundred (n=50 each country) Chinese males subjectively evaluated four shoe models during running using two assessment procedures. Procedure 1 used a Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) to assess five perception variables. Procedure 2 was a ‘Head-to-head’ comparison of two shoes simultaneously (e.g. left foot: A, right foot: B) to decide which model was preferred. VAS scores were consistently higher in Beijing participants (P<.001), indicating a higher degree of liking. Singapore participants used the lower end but a wider range of the 15-cm scale for shoe discrimination. Moderate agreement was seen between the VAS and 'Head-to-head' procedures, with only 14 out of 100 participants matched all 6 pairwise comparisons (median=4 matches). Footwear companies and researchers should be aware that subjective shoe preference may vary with assessment methods.
    WOS© Citations 16Scopus© Citations 17  261  296
  • Publication
    Open Access
    Hamstring muscle architecture and viscoelastic properties: Reliability and retrospective comparison between previously injured and uninjured athletes
    (2021)
    Nin, Darren Zijie
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    Pain, Matthew T.G.
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    Lim, Yii Hong
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    The architecture of the biceps femoris (BF) and stiffness of the hamstrings have been found to be associated with injury risk. However, less is known about the architecture of the equally voluminous semitendinosus (ST) and viscoelastic properties of both muscles in individuals with a prior injury. Methods: BF and ST of 15 athletes (previously injured, n=5; control, n=10) were assessed using ultrasonography and myotonometry. Mean architecture (muscle thickness (MT), pennation angle (PA) and fascicle length (FL)) and viscoelastic measures (stiffness, oscillation frequency and decrement) were compared between the previously injured and contralateral uninjured limb, and between the previously injured and control limbs (mean of both limbs of the control group). Control group participants returned for a duplicate measurement. Findings: Both muscles exhibited high reliability between sessions (intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC)=0.89−0.98) for architecture. BF PA was larger in the previously injured than both uninjured (+1.1,d=0.65) and control (+1.51,d=0.71). BF fascicles were shorter in the previously injured limb compared to the uninjured (−0.4cm,d=0.65) and control (−0.6cm,d=0.67). BF was stiffer in the previously injured compared to uninjured (+9.2Nm−1,d=1.28). ST architecture and viscoelasticity were similar across limbs. Conclusion: A prior hamstring strain injury is associated with a stiffer BF characterized by larger PAs and shorter fascicles.
    WOS© Citations 4Scopus© Citations 6  103  119
  • Publication
    Embargo
    Muscle rub enhanced explosive leg power but not flexibility or balance in college athletes
    (2023)
    Chiam, Melody J.
    ;
    Athletes often use muscle rub to heat up the muscles during warm-up as they believe this will improve their sports performance. However, there is no clear evidence on whether muscle rub application to the upper legs can improve physical performance in athletes. Twenty college athletes were randomized to either receiving 3g of muscle rub or a placebo. Static flexibility, dynamic balance, and explosive leg power were measured before and after the application of the muscle rub/placebo. Percentage changes in the performance scores (post–pre) were calculated and compared between the muscle rub and placebo groups using the Mann–Whitney U test and the smallest worthwhile change was calculated to offer further insights for individual participants. Results showed that jump distance significantly increased by 1.7% (p=0.028, large effect size) with muscle rub application compared to placebo. There was no significant difference in the percentage change between muscle rub and placebo groups in flexibility (p=0.520) and dynamic balance (p=0.529) performances. In conclusion, application of muscle rub on the upper legs positively enhanced explosive leg power but did not affect flexibility or dynamic balance performances.
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  • Publication
    Open Access
    Effects of textured insoles and elastic braces on dynamic stability in patients with functional ankle instability
    (BMC, 2023)
    Tang, Yunqi
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    Li, Xinyue
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    Li, Yi
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    Liang, Peiyao
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    Guo, Xinyu
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    Zhang, Cui
    ;
    Background Functional ankle instability (FAI) is a common condition that affects individuals who have experienced previous ankle sprains. Textured insoles and elastic ankle braces have been previously used as interventions to improve stability in FAI patients. However, the optimal combination of these interventions has not been fully explored. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of different types of textured insoles and elastic ankle braces on the dynamic stability of individuals diagnosed with FAI. Methods The study involved 18 FAI patients who performed single-leg landing tasks with and without wearing an eight-band elastic ankle brace while wearing textured insoles with protrusion heights of 0 mm, 1 mm, and 2 mm. The dynamic posture stability index (DPSI) and its components in the anterior-posterior (APSI), mediolateral (MLSI) and vertical (VSI) directions were calculated from the ground reaction force collected from the Kistler force plate during the first three seconds of the landing tasks. Results A significant interaction was found between textured insole type and ankle brace for DPSI (P = 0.026), APSI (P = 0.001), and VSI (P = 0.021). However, no significant interaction was observed for MLSI (P = 0.555). With elastic ankle braces, textured insoles with 1-mm protrusions significantly enhanced anterior-posterior, mediolateral, vertical, and overall stability compared to textured insoles with no and 2 mm protrusions (P < 0.05). Without elastic ankle braces, textured insoles with 1-mm protrusions significantly improved the anterior-posterior (P = 0.012) and overall stability (P = 0.014) of FAI patients compared to smooth insoles. Conclusions The combination of textured insoles with 1-mm protrusion heights and an elastic ankle brace could enhance the dynamic stability of individuals with FAI, potentially mitigating the risk of ankle sprains.
      21  24
  • Publication
    Open Access
    Adaptive regulation in a stable performance environment: Trial-to-trial consistency in cue sports performance
    (2022)
    Pan, Jingwen
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    ;
    This study aimed to investigate individual trial-to-trial performance in three tests to define adaptive regulation as a key feature of expertise in nine-ball. Thirty-one male players were assigned into the low-skilled (n = 11), intermediate (n = 10), or high-skilled groups (n = 10). The power control, cue alignment, and angle tests were selected to assess participants’ ability to control the power applied in shots, strike the ball straight, and understand the ball paths, respectively. Error distance and correction of error distance were identified for each shot using 2D video analysis. Results of one-way analysis of variance showed that the high-skilled group performed better in two out of the three tests than the other two groups (p = .010 for the cue alignment test; p = .002 for the angle test). However, the adaptation effect represented by the decreased error distances across trials was not observed. Pearson correlation revealed only a few significant correlations between the error distance and its correction within each participant in all tests (p < .05), and hence, the hypothesis that “low correction happened after small error and vice versa” is not supported.
    WOS© Citations 2  68  47
  • Publication
    Open Access
    Effect of caffeine ingestion on free-throw performance in college basketball players
    (2020)
    Tan, Zhi Sen
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    ;
    Pan, Jingwen
    ;
    Background: It is currently unclear whether pre-exercise caffeine ingestion can improve free-throw shooting performance, a vital skill in basketball. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of caffeine on free-throw shooting performance in college-aged basketball players.

    Methods: Twelve males (23.1 ± 1.9 years; 180.1 ± 8.8 cm; 77.1 ± 12.4 kg) and six females (22.0 ± 1.3 years; 169.4 ± 8.9 cm; 67.0 ± 11.1 kg) who competed at the college level ingested 6 mg per kg of body mass of (a) caffeine or (b) maltodextrin (placebo) on two separate occasions in a random order. After 60 min, they performed five sets of a match-simulated basketball protocol comprising six sideline-tosideline sprints on a standard basketball court followed by two free-throws after each set. The number of successful shots was counted. Heart rate and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) after each sprint set were also recorded.
    Results: Caffeine ingestion did not improve overall free-throw success (caffeine = 6.1 ± 1.7 vs. placebo = 5.5 ± 2.0; p = 0.34) compared with placebo across all five sets. There was no change in shooting accuracy across sprint sets in either trial despite significant increases in both heart rate and RPE. Caffeine increased heart rate (p = 0.02) but had no effect on RPE (p = 0.57) across five sets compared with placebo.
    Conclusions: Ingestion of 6 mg of caffeine per kg of body mass did not improve basketball free-throw performance. Free-throw performance did not deteriorate with increasing number of sprint sets.
    WOS© Citations 11Scopus© Citations 13  161  122
  • Publication
    Open Access
    Acquiring expertise in precision sport: What can we learn from an elite snooker player?
    (2021) ;
    Pan, Jingwen
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    Chu, Danny P. K.
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    Cheung, Pak Ming
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    Lau, Patrick Wing Chung
    Snooker can be an attractive life-long physical activity, given its popularity across all age groups in Asia and Europe. However, scientific research on the cueing movement is limited. This case study presented the biomechanical profiles of the cueing movement in an elite male snooker player (age 37 years old, height 173 cm, body mass 70 kg). Kinematics of the upper limb and cue stick, were examined in five selected snooker tasks (warm-up, stun, top spin, back spin, and stop shots) using the Vicon motion capture system. Ground reaction forces and centre of pressure characteristics were recorded using two Kistler force platforms. Results showed that the cueing movement was contributed primarily by elbow flexion/extension and much less wrist flexion/extension. The high degree of cue stick position overlap between the practice swing and final stroke indicated high level of cueing precision. Weight transfer between feet revealed a slight lean towards the left foot throughout the final stroke, confirming that the elite player was able to maintain high stance stability when executing the cueing movement. Results presented in the present study can serve as a reference for practitioners and scientists to detect error, enhance training, and improve performance in snooker. For practical applications, snooker players are advised to stabilise their shoulder during the cueing movement and deliver the cue stick primarily via elbow movements.
      326  249
  • Publication
    Open Access
    Air pistol shooting: Upper limb muscle activation between training and simulated competition
    (2021)
    Loh, Suan Kheng
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    Lim, Jolene Ziyuan
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    Pan, Jingwen
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    Luqman Aziz
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    Lee, Marcus
    ;
    Heightened stress during air pistol competitions may impair shooters’ abilities to maintain gun stability, resulting in inferior performance. This study aimed to compare the pre-trigger muscle activation levels of upper muscles in 10-m air pistol shooters between training and simulated competition conditions. Seven sub-elite shooters from the Singapore National Youth Air Pistol Team shot 30 shots in a training versus simulated competition condition in randomised orders on separate days. Muscle activation for the forearm and shoulder muscles, namely extensor carpi radialis, flexor carpi ulnaris, anterior deltoid, and posterior deltoid, were recorded using electromyography (EMG). Shooting performance was evaluated by total shot scores. Stress level was monitored via heart rate and the Mental Readiness Form-3. No statistically significant differences were found in EMG, performance, or stress-related variables between conditions, although moderate-to-large effect sizes were observed in some muscle activation and self-reported stress indicators. Analysis of individual performances using smallest worthwhile change showed that two participants improved under the simulated competition condition, while two declined, and three remained unaffected. In conclusion, sub-elite youth air pistol shooters were able to exhibit good neuromuscular control under high anxiety situations and thus their performance was largely unaffected.
    Scopus© Citations 1  334  113