Now showing 1 - 10 of 36
  • Publication
    Open Access
    I think therefore I learn
    (National Institute of Education (Singapore), 2021) ;
      76  142
  • Publication
    Open Access
    The relationship between lifestyle and serum neurofilament light protein in Huntington’s disease
    (2020)
    Cruickshank, Travis
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    Bartlett, Danielle
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    Govus, Andrew
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    Hannan, Anthony
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    ;
    Mason, Sarah
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    Lo, Johnny
    ;
    Ziman, Mel
    Objectives Serum neurofilament light protein (NfL) is a promising marker of disease onset and progression in Huntington's disease (HD). This study investigated associations between lifestyle factors and NfL levels in HD mutation carriers compared to healthy age‐ and sex‐matched controls. Materials and Methods Participants included 29 HD mutation carriers and 15 healthy controls. Associations between serum NfL concentrations and lifestyle factors, including cardiorespiratory fitness, social network size and diversity, physical activity, cognitive reserve, smoking status, and alcohol consumption, were examined using a stepwise multivariable linear regression model. Results Higher NfL levels were associated with lower cognitive reserve, social network size and diversity and cardiorespiratory fitness in HD mutation carriers. Group × lifestyle factor effects were observed between lower serum NfL levels and a greater social network diversity. Conclusion These findings highlight a relationship between lifestyle factors and NfL levels in HD mutations carriers; however, longitudinal studies are required to confirm if these observed relationships persist over time.
    WOS© Citations 12Scopus© Citations 13  281  54
  • Publication
    Metadata only
    Monitoring Effects of Sleep Extension and Restriction on Endurance Performance Using Heart Rate Indices
    (2021)
    Roberts, Spencer S.H.
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    Aisbett, Brad
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    ;
    Warmington, Stuart
    Roberts, SSH, Aisbett, B, Teo, W-P, and Warmington, S. Monitoring effects of sleep extension and restriction on endurance performance using heart rate indices. J Strength Cond Res 36(12): 3381-3389, 2022-Heart rate (HR) indices are useful for monitoring athlete fatigue or "readiness to perform." This study examined whether HR indices are sensitive to changes in readiness following sleep restriction (SR) and sleep extension (SE). Nine athletes completed a crossover study with 3 conditions: SR, normal sleep (NS), and SE. Each condition required completion of an endurance time trial (TT) on 4 consecutive days (D1-D4). Athletes slept habitually before D1; however, time in bed was reduced by 30% (SR), remained normal (NS), or extended by 30% (SE), on subsequent nights (D1-D3). Daily resting HR and HR variability were recorded. The maximal rate of HR increase and HR recovery was determined from a constant-load test before TTs. Exercise intensity ratios incorporating mean HR, mean power (W), and perceived exertion (RPE) were recorded at steady state during constant-load tests (W:HR SS ) and during TTs (W:HR TT , RPE:HR TT ). Compared with D4 of NS, RPE:HR TT was lower on D4 of SE ( p = 0.008)-when TT performances were faster. Compared with D1 of SR, RPE:HR TT was higher on D3 and D4 of SR ( p < 0.02). Moderate correlations were found between percentage changes in W:HR TT and changes in TT finishing time in SR ( r = -0.67, p = 0.049) and SE ( r = -0.69, p = 0.038) conditions. Intensity ratios incorporating mean HR seem sensitive to effects of sleep duration on athlete readiness to perform. When interpreting intensity ratios, practitioners should consider potential effects of prior sleep duration to determine whether sleep-promoting interventions are required (e.g., SE).
    WOS© Citations 2  21
  • Publication
    Metadata only
    Differences in the gut microbiome across typical ageing and in Parkinson's disease
    (2023)
    Nuzum, Nathan
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    Szymlek-Gay, Ewa A.
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    Loke, Stella
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    Dawson, Samantha L.
    ;
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    Hendy, Ashlee
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    Loughman, Amy
    ;
    Macpherson, Helen
    The microbiota-gut-brain axis' role in Parkinson's disease (PD) pathophysiology, and how this differs from typical ageing, is poorly understood. Presently, gut-bacterial diversity, taxonomic abundance and metabolic bacterial pathways were compared across healthy young (n = 22, 18–35 years), healthy older (n = 33, 50–80 years), and PD groups (n = 18, 50–80 years) using shotgun sequencing and compositional data analysis. Associations between the gut-microbiome and PD symptoms, and between lifestyle factors (fibre intake, physical activity, and sleep) and the gut-microbiome were conducted. Alpha-diversity did not differ between PD participants and older adults, whilst beta-diversity differed between these groups. Lower abundance of Butyricimonas synergistica, a butyrate-producer, was associated with worse PD non-motor symptoms in the PD group. Regarding typical ageing, Bifidobacterium bifidum, was greater in the younger compared to older group, with no difference between the older and PD group. Abundance of metabolic pathways related to butyrate production did not differ among the groups, while other metabolic pathways differed among the three groups. Sleep efficiency was positively associated with Roseburia inulinivorans in the older group. These results highlight the relevance of gut-microbiota to PD and that reduced butyrate-production may be involved with PD pathophysiology. Future studies should account for lifestyle factors when investigating gut-microbiomes across ageing and in PD.
    WOS© Citations 3Scopus© Citations 4  42
  • Publication
    Metadata only
    A meta-analytical review of transcranial direct current stimulation parameters on upper limb motor learning in healthy older adults and people with Parkinson's disease
    (2022)
    Leuk, Jessie Siew Pin
    ;
    Yow, Kai-En
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    Tan, Clenyce Zi-Xin
    ;
    Hendy, Ashlee
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    Tan, Mika Kar-Wing
    ;
    ;
    Current literature lacks consolidated evidence for the impact of stimulation parameters on the effects of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) in enhancing upper limb motor learning. Hence, we aim to synthesise available methodologies and results to guide future research on the usage of tDCS on upper limb motor learning, specifically in older adults and Parkinson’s disease (PD). Thirty-two studies (Healthy older adults, N = 526, M = 67.25, SD = 4.30 years; PD, N = 216, M = 66.62, SD = 6.25 years) were included in the meta-analysis. All included studies consisted of active and sham protocols. Random effect meta-analyses were conducted for (i) subjects (healthy older adults and PD); (ii) intensity (1.0, 1.5, 2 mA); (iii) electrode montage (unilateral anodal, bilateral anodal, unilateral cathodal); (iv) stimulation site (cerebellum, frontal, motor, premotor, SMA, somatosensory); (v) protocol (online, offline). Significant tDCS effect on motor learning was reported for both populations, intensity 1.0 and 2.0 mA, unilateral anodal and cathodal stimulation, stimulation site of the motor and premotor cortex, and both online and offline protocols. Regression showed no significant relationship between tDCS effects and density. The efficacy of tDCS is also not affected by the number of sessions. However, studies that reported only single session tDCS found significant negative association between duration with motor learning outcomes. Our findings suggest that different stimulation parameters enhanced upper limb motor learning in older adults and PD. Future research should combine tDCS with neuroimaging techniques to help with optimisation of the stimulation parameters, considering the type of task and population.
    WOS© Citations 1Scopus© Citations 1  27
  • Publication
    Open Access
    Domains, feasibility, effectiveness, cost, and acceptability of telehealth in aging care: A scoping review of systematic reviews
    (2023)
    Zhang, Yichi
    ;
    Leuk, Jessie Siew Pin
    ;
    Background: Aging is becoming a major global challenge. Compared with younger adults, the older population has greater health needs but faces inadequate access to appropriate, affordable, and high-quality health care. Telehealth can remove geographic and time boundaries, as well as enabling socially isolated and physically homebound people to access a wider range of care options. The impacts of different telehealth interventions in terms of their effectiveness, cost, and acceptability in aging care are still unclear. Objective: This scoping review of systematic reviews aimed to provide an overview of the domains of telehealth implemented in aging care; synthesize evidence of telehealth’s feasibility, effectiveness, cost benefits, and acceptability in the context of aging care; identify gaps in the literature; and determine the priorities for future research. Methods: Guided by the methodological framework of the Joanna Briggs Institute, we reviewed systematic reviews concerning all types of telehealth interventions involving direct communication between older users and health care providers. In total, 5 major electronic databases, PubMed, Embase (Ovid), Cochrane Library, CINAHL, and PsycINFO (EBSCO), were searched on September 16, 2021, and an updated search was performed on April 28, 2022, across the same databases as well as the first 10 pages of the Google search. Results: A total of 29 systematic reviews, including 1 post hoc subanalysis of a previously published large Cochrane systematic review with meta-analysis, were included. Telehealth has been adopted in various domains in aging care, such as cardiovascular diseases, mental health, cognitive impairment, prefrailty and frailty, chronic diseases, and oral health, and it seems to be a promising, feasible, effective, cost-effective, and acceptable alternative to usual care in selected domains. However, it should be noted that the generalizability of the results might be limited, and further studies with larger sample sizes, more rigorous designs, adequate reporting, and more consistently defined outcomes and methodologies are needed. The factors affecting telehealth use among older adults have been categorized into individual, interpersonal, technological, system, and policy levels, which could help direct collaborative efforts toward improving the security, accessibility, and affordability of telehealth as well as better prepare the older population for digital inclusion. Conclusions: Although telehealth remains in its infancy and there is a lack of high-quality studies to rigorously prove the feasibility, effectiveness, cost benefit, and acceptability of telehealth, mounting evidence has indicated that it could play a promising complementary role in the care of the aging population.
    WOS© Citations 5Scopus© Citations 7  32  165
  • Publication
    Metadata only
    Is neuroimaging ready for the classroom? A systematic review of hyperscanning studies in learning
    (Elsevier, 2023)
    Tan, Jessica Sok Hui
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    Wong, Jin Nen
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    Whether education research can be informed by findings from neuroscience studies has been hotly debated since Bruer's (1997) famous claim that neuroscience and education are “a bridge too far”. However, this claim came before recent advancements in portable electroencephalography (EEG) and functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) technologies, and second-person neuroscience techniques that brought about significant headway in understanding instructor-learner interactions in the classroom. To explore whether neuroscience and education are still two very separate fields, we systematically review 15 hyperscanning studies that were conducted in real-world classrooms or that implemented a teaching-learning task to investigate instructor-learner dynamics. Findings from this investigation illustrate that inter-brain synchrony between instructor and learner is an additional and valuable dimension to understand the complex web of instructor- and learner-related variables that influence learning. Importantly, these findings demonstrate the possibility of conducting real-world classroom studies with portable neuroimaging techniques and highlight the potential of such studies in providing translatable real-world implications. Once thought of as incompatible, a successful coupling between neuroscience and education is now within sight.
    WOS© Citations 2Scopus© Citations 5  17
  • Publication
    Open Access
    An overview of acoustic-based interventions to improve motor symptoms in Parkinson’s disease
    (2020)
    Leuk, Jessie Siew Pin
    ;
    Low, Linette Li Neng
    ;
    Parkinson’s disease (PD) is characterized by motor and cognitive deficits that negatively impact on activities of daily living. While dopaminergic medications are used to attenuate motor symptoms, adjuvant therapies such as acoustic-based non-pharmacological interventions are used as a complement to standard drug treatments. At present, preliminary studies of acoustic-based interventions such as rhythmic-auditory stimulation (RAS) and vibroacoustic therapy (VAT) suggest two competing hypotheses: (1) RAS may recruit alternative motor networks that may bypass faulty spatiotemporal motor networks of movement in PD; or (2) the use of RAS enhances BG function through entrainment of beta oscillatory activities. In this mini review article, we discuss the mechanisms underlying the role of acoustic-based interventions and how it may serve to improve motor deficits such as gait impairments and tremors. We further provide suggestions for future work that may use a combination of RAS, VAT, and physical therapy to improve motor function in PD.
    WOS© Citations 8Scopus© Citations 11  242  120
  • Publication
    Metadata only
    Classification of Parkinson's disease motor phenotype: A machine learning approach
    (2022)
    Shirahige, Livia
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    Leimig, Brenda
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    Baltar, Adriana
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    Bezerra, Amanda
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    de Brito, Caio Vinicius Ferreira
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    do Nascimento, Yasmin Samara Oliveira
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    Gomes, Juliana Carneiro
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    ;
    dos Santos, Wellington Pinheiro
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    Cairrao, Marcelo
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    Fonseca, Andre
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    Monte-Silva, Katia
    To assess the cortical activity in people with Parkinson’s disease (PwP) with different motor phenotype (tremor-dominant—TD and postural instability and gait difficulty—PIGD) and to compare with controls. Twenty-four PwP (during OFF and ON medication) and twelve age-/sex-/handedness-matched healthy controls underwent electrophysiological assessment of spectral ratio analysis through electroencephalography (EEG) at resting state and during the hand movement. We performed a machine learning method with 35 attributes extracted from EEG. To verify the efficiency of the proposed phenotype-based EEG classification the random forest and random tree were tested (performed 30 times, using a tenfolds cross validation in Weka environment). The analyses based on phenotypes indicated a slowing down of cortical activity during OFF medication state in PwP. PD with TD phenotype presented this characteristic at resting and the individuals with PIGD presented during the hand movement. During the ON state, there is no difference between phenotypes at resting nor during the hand movement. PD phenotypes may influence spectral activity measured by EEG. Random forest machine learning provides a slightly more accurate, sensible and specific approach to distinguish different PD phenotypes. The phenotype of PD might be a clinical characteristic that could influence cortical activity.
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