Now showing 1 - 10 of 36
  • Publication
    Open Access
    Physical activity measurement methodologies: A systematic review in the Association of South East Asian Nations (ASEAN)
    (2021)
    Lee, Yi-Shin
    ;
    ;
    Non-communicable diseases (NCDs) are a preventable threat to livelihood and longevity in the Association of South East Asian Nations (ASEAN) and insufficient physical activity (PA) is a primary cause of NCDs. A PRISMA based systematic review of measurement methodologies used to assess PA was conducted. 564 studies published between 1978 and 2020 were reviewed. The majority of the PA measurement employed subjective methodologies and were observational and cross-sectional, with disproportionately fewer studies conducted in economically-challenged member nations, except for Brunei. PA research in Brunei, Cambodia, Laos and Myanmar constituted 0.4–1.1% while Malaysia, Singapore, Thailand and Indonesia contributed 12–37% of all PA research within ASEAN. A decision matrix can be used to determine the measurement methodology of choice to assess PA. Joint research across ASEAN using a common assessment or measurement template that is co-curated by ASEAN researchers that incorporates multi-level and whole-of-society criteria in terms of PA enablers is a recommendation. This could be co-led by more experienced and better resourced countries so as to produce a unified and universal ‘report card’ for PA measurement within ASEAN.
    WOS© Citations 2Scopus© Citations 2  327  135
  • Publication
    Open Access
    Acquiring expertise in precision sports – A case in cue sports.
    (National Institute of Education (Singapore), 2021) ; ;
    Pan, Jingwen
      118  98
  • Publication
    Metadata only
    Information and communication technology as an enabler for implementing nonlinear pedagogy in physical education: Effects on students' exploration and motivation
    (2022) ; ;
    Kawabata, Masato
    ;
    Choo, Corliss Zhi Yi
    In the twenty-first century the Physical Education (PE) landscape is ever changing, with students being immersed increasingly in technologically driven learning environments. Therefore, there is a need to understand how Information and Communication Technology (ICT) are impacting learning opportunities. Specifically, how pedagogical practices could benefit from the development of ICT. This study investigated the effect of using ICT in PE when it is accompanied by a pedagogical innovation to promote students’ motivation. Thirty participants from 5 different indoor climbing PE classes were involved. Three experimental conditions were used: (1) Control, a regular climbing lesson, where traditional climbing holds are used, (2) Placebo climbing lesson, where participants climbed on an instrumented climbing wall with electronic climbing holds but the content of the lesson was similar to the regular condition, and (3) Nonlinear Pedagogy climbing lesson, where participants also climbed on the instrumented wall but with technology used in this context to implement innovative tasks routed on Nonlinear Pedagogy concepts (i.e., fostering motor exploration). Participants were involved in all three conditions and at the end of each condition, and they completed a survey set on their experiences in the climbing lessons. Compared to the control and placebo conditions, external regulation and tension scores were significantly lower and enjoyment scores were significantly higher during the Nonlinear Pedagogy climbing lesson. These results indicated that when integrated with a clear pedagogical purpose, ICT could positively impact learners.
    Scopus© Citations 9  103
  • Publication
    Open Access
    Development of new 9-ball test protocols for assessing expertise in cue sports
    (2021)
    Pan, Jingwen
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    ;
    Background This study aimed to develop new test protocols for evaluating 9-ball expertise levels in cue sports players. Methods Thirty-one male 9-ball players at different playing levels were recruited (recreational group, n = 8; university team, n = 15; national team, n = 8). A 15-ball test was administered to indicate overall performance by counting the number of balls potted. Five skill tests (power control, cue alignment, angle, back spin, and top spin) were conducted to evaluate specific techniques by calculating error distances from pre-set targets using 2D video analysis. Results Intra-class correlation analyses revealed excellent intra-rater and inter-rater reliability in four out of five skill tests (ICC > 0.95). Significant between-group differences were found in 15-ball test performance (p <  0.001) and absolute error distances in the angle (p <  0.001), back spin (p = 0.006), and top spin tests (p = 0.045), with the recreational group performing worst while the national team performing best. Greater inter-trial variability was observed in recreational players than the more skilled players (p <  0.005). Conclusions In conclusion, the 9-ball test protocols were reliable and could successfully discriminate between different playing levels. Coaches and researchers may employ these protocols to identify errors, monitor training, and rank players.
    WOS© Citations 3Scopus© Citations 5  108  72
  • Publication
    Open Access
    Different pedagogical approaches to motor imagery both demonstrate individualized movement patterns to achieve improved performance outcomes when learning a complex motor skill
    (Public Library of Science, 2024)
    Riki Lindsay
    ;
    ; ;
    Larkin Paul
    ;
    Michael Spittle
    Cognitive training techniques such as motor imagery (MI)–cognitive simulation of movement, has been found to successfully facilitate skill acquisition. The MI literature emphasizes the need to accurately imitate key elements of motor execution to facilitate improved performance outcomes. However, there is a scarcity of MI research investigating how contemporary approaches to motor learning, such as nonlinear pedagogy (NLP), can be integrated into MI practice. Grounded in an ecological dynamics approach to human movement, NLP proposes that skilled action is an emergent process that results from continuous interactions between perceptual information of the environment and movement. This emergent process can be facilitated by the manipulation of key task constraints that aim to encourage learners to explore movement solutions that satisfy individual constraints (e.g., height and weight) and achieve successful performance outcomes. The aim of the present study was to explore the application of a NLP approach to MI approach for skill acquisition. Fourteen weightlifting beginners (two female and 12 male) participated in a 4-week intervention involving either NLP (i.e. analogy-based instructions and manipulation of task constraints) or a linear pedagogy (LP; prescriptive instructions of optimal technique, repetition of same movement form) to learn a complex weightlifting derivative. Performance accuracy, movement criterion (barbell trajectory type), kinematic data, and quantity of exploration/exploitation were measured pre-mid-post intervention. No significant differences (p = .438) were observed in the amount of exploration between LP (EER = 0.41) and NLP (EER = 0.26) conditions. Equivalent changes in rearward displacement (R×D) were observed with no significant differences between conditions for technique assessments 1, 2, or 3 (p = .13 - .67). Both NLP and LP conditions were found to primarily demonstrate ‘sub-optimal’ type 3 barbell trajectories (NLP = 72%; LP = 54%). These results suggest that MI instructions prescribing a specific movement form (i.e., LP condition) are ineffective in restricting available movements to a prescribed technique but rather the inherent task constraints appear to ‘force’ learners to explore alternative movement solutions to achieve successful performance outcomes. Although MI instructions prescribing specific techniques have previously supported improved skill development, the current findings indicate that learners may self-organise their movements regardless of MI instructions to satisfy individual and task constraints while achieving improved performance. Therefore, it may be beneficial to consider scripts that are more outcome focused and incorporate task constraints to facilitate learners’ inherent exploration of individual task solutions.
      24  345
  • Publication
    Open Access
    A deep dive into the use of local positioning system in professional handball: Automatic detection of players’ orientation, position and game phases to analyse specific physical demands
    (2023)
    Lefevre, Thomas
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    Guignard, Brice
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    Reche, Xavier
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    Font, Roger
    ;
    The objective of this study is to automate and analyse the quantification of external load during an elite men’s handball match. This study was carried out using data from a local positioning system and inertial measurement units. The literature review leads us to assume that physical demands are different depending on position, player specialty and phases of the game. In order to do this analysis, raw data was used from professional competitors of a Spanish club during National and European competition matches. First, a game phase algorithm was designed to automate phase recognition. Then, a descriptive evaluation of the means and standard deviation was performed with the following variables: total distance, total time, total Accel’Rate, the percentages of distance and time per speed and displacement direction. A Kruskal Wallis test was applied to normalized distance and normalized Accel’Rate. Defensive play showed the highest values on covered distance (930.6 ± 395.0 m). However, normalized distance showed significant differences (p<0.05) across all phases with defensive play (558.8 ± 53.9 m/10min) lower than offensive play (870.3 ± 145.7 m/10min), offensive transition (1671.3 ± 242.0 m/10min) or defensive transition (1604.5 ± 242.0 m/10min). Regarding position, wing players covered the most distance (2925.8 ± 998.8 m) at the second highest intensity (911.4 ± 63.3 m/10min) after offensive back players (1105.0 ± 84.9 m/10min). Significant difference in normalized requirements were found between each playing position: goalkeepers, wings, versatile backs, versatile line players, offensive backs and defensive backs (p<0.05), so a separation between offensive or defensive specialists is plausible and necessary. In conclusion, as physical demands differ for each game phase, activity profile among players is modulated by their playing position and their specialty (offense, defense or none). This study may help to create individual training programs according to precise on-court demands.
      63  36
  • Publication
    Open Access
    Narrowing the coordination solution space during motor learning standardizes individual patterns of search strategy but diversifies learning rates
    (2023) ;
    Seifert, Ludovic
    ;
    Vergne, Nicolas
    ;
    Newell, Karl M.
    Constraints on practice can benefit motor learning by guiding the learner towards efficient coordination patterns, but can also narrow the potential solution space of coordination and control. The aim of this paper was to investigate whether narrowing the solution space through more restrictive task constraints limits the expression of potential exploratory behaviours during the learning process, identified using Drifting Markov Models. In a breaststroke swimming task, the change in interlimb coordination of 7 learners practicing for 16 lessons over 2 months was analysed to quantify motor exploration and identify periods of metastable regimes of coordination. Results showed that the observed exploratory dynamics were highly individual both in terms of range of exploration and in the patterns of search. The more restrictive task constraints did not impair the amount of exploration but rather channelled the exploration around a few selected patterns. In addition, restraining the nature of the exploratory process increased the inter-individual differences of the learning rate. Although manipulating the task constraints during learning can help learners to escape from the behavioural consequences of their intrinsic dynamics, maintaining a broad solution space for a diversity of coordination patterns to emerge was key to fostering effective exploration of individual coordination solutions.
    Scopus© Citations 2  47  39
  • Publication
    Open Access
    Clustering analysis of movement kinematics in reinforcement learning
    (2021)
    Ananda Sidarta
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    ;
    Ostry, David J.
    Reinforcement learning has been used as an experimental model of motor skill acquisition, where at times movements are successful and thus reinforced. One fundamental problem is to understand how humans select exploration over exploitation during learning. The decision could be influenced by factors such as task demands and reward availability. In this study, we applied a clustering algorithm to examine how a change in the accuracy requirements of a task affected the choice of exploration over exploitation. Participants made reaching movements to an unseen target using a planar robot arm and received reward after each successful movement. For one group of participants, the width of the hidden target decreased after every other training block. For a second group, it remained constant. The clustering algorithm was applied to the kinematic data to characterize motor learning on a trial-to-trial basis as a sequence of movements, each belonging to one of the identified clusters. By the end of learning, movement trajectories across all participants converged primarily to a single cluster with the greatest number of successful trials. Within this analysis framework, we defined exploration and exploitation as types of behaviour in which two successive trajectories belong to different or similar clusters, respectively. The frequency of each mode of behaviour was evaluated over the course learning. It was found that by reducing the target width, participants used a greater variety of different clusters and displayed more exploration than exploitation. Excessive exploration relative to exploitation was found to be detrimental to subsequent motor learning.
    WOS© Citations 5Scopus© Citations 6  279  147
  • Publication
    Open Access
    Associations between parent attitudes and on- and off-screen behaviours of preschool children in Singapore
    (2022) ; ;
    Chua, Terence Buan Kiong
    ;
    Tay, Lee Yong
    The research aims were to examine the relationships between parent and child digital media use and to describe the characteristics of the top and bottom quartiles of child digital media use in meeting the 24 h integrated guidelines for sleep, physical activity, and sedentary behaviour. Parent-reported on- and off-screen habits and quality of life of children were collected from 1481 parents of preschool children aged 2–5 years in 2019. Significant relationships were detected between parent and child digital media use (weekday, r = 0.274; weekend, r = 0.421, p < 0.05) with no sex difference in daily child digital media use (p > 0.05). Age of first exposure to fixed screens, daily digital media use, and physical play durations were significantly different between heavy (child-TQ) and light (child-BQ) child users of digital media (p < 0.05). Parental perceived importance of child digital media use and parental awareness and practice of guidelines for child digital media use differed significantly between parents of child-TQs and parents of child-BQs (p < 0.05). The number of 24 h movement guidelines met between child-TQs and child-BQs differed (p < 0.05). Parents voiced serious concerns for child digital media use, including addiction (75–76%), poor eyesight (73%), access to inappropriate content (73–74%), a lack of parent–child interaction (65%), poor sleep (49–55%), and a lack of physical activity (55–59%), but these findings did not translate to parental enforcement of the guidelines. Parent education on how to get the best digital media use outcomes for preschool children is recommended.
    Scopus© Citations 2  115  217
  • Publication
    Open Access
    Effects of practice on a mechanical horse with an online feedback on performing a sitting postural coordination
    (2020)
    Baillet, Heloise
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    Leroy, David
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    Verin, Eric
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    Delpouve, Claire
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    Boulanger, Jeremie
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    Benguigui, Nicolas
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    ;
    Thouvarecq, Regis
    The present research aims at quantifying the impact of practicing a new coordination pattern with an online visual feedback on the postural coordination performed on a mechanical horse. Forty-four voluntary participants were recruited in this study. They were randomly assigned to four practice groups based on i) with or without feedback (i.e., group 1, control, did not receive the feedback; group 2, 3 and 4 received an online feedback during practice) and ii) the specific trunk/horse coordination to target during practice (group 1, target coordination = 180° (without feedback); group 2, target coordination = 0°; group 3, target coordination = 90°; group 4, target coordination = 180°). All participants performed pre-, practice, post- and retention sessions. The pre-, post- and retention sessions consisted of four trials, with one trial corresponding to one specific target coordination to maintain between their own oscillations and the horse oscillations (spontaneous, 0°, 90°, and 180°). The practice phase was composed of three different sessions during which participants received an online feedback about the coordination between their own oscillations and the horse oscillations. Results showed a significant change with practice in the trunk/horse coordination patterns which persisted even after one month (retention-test). However, all the groups did not show the same nature of change, evidenced by a high postural variability during post-test for 0° and 90° target coordination groups, in opposition to the 180° and spontaneous groups who showed a decrease in coordination variability for the 180° group. The coordination in anti-phase was characterized as spontaneously adopted by participants on the mechanical horse, explaining the ease of performing this coordination (compared to the 0° and 90° target coordination). The effect of online visual feedback appeared not only on the coordination pattern itself, but most importantly on its variability during practice, including concerning initially stable coordination patterns.
      279  56