Huang Junsong, David
Huang Junsong, David
Office of Education Research (OER)
Now showing 1 - 10 of 21
- PublicationRestrictedInvestigating the generation-first-instruction-later method for its effects on learning and transfer: A proposal to study analogical reasoning as the generation task(Office of Education Research, National Institute of Education, Singapore, 2020)
; ;Lam, RachelManu KapurProductive Failure1,2 studies have shown that working on generative and complex activities prepares students for learning from subsequent instruction (i.e., delayed instruction). Under a delayed instruction setting, this study investigated the degree of freedom of generation and the level of task complexity as two key attributes of a preparatory task. The purpose was to make preliminary exploration on whether there is a boundary at which the benefit of a more generative task over a less generative task, such as compare and contrast, may disappear when the task complexity reduces. 316 11
- PublicationRestrictedLearning innovation diffusion as a complex adaptive system : case studies on developing knowledge about and knowledge in doing for education leaders through cognitive conflicts(2014)Conceiving innovation diffusion as a Complex Adaptive System (CAS) broadens the approaches to foster scalable and sustainable diffusion of innovation in schools. This study adopted an Interpretivist Paradigm through multiple case studies to understand education leaders’ learning with regard to innovation diffusion as a CAS. There were four cases involving eight education leaders learning in four dyads. The purpose was to seek a descriptive and interpretative understanding of their learning processes, which included the knowledge development trajectories and the learning patterns through which the learning activities induced the knowledge development trajectories. Cognitive conflict was engaged as the learning strategy and learning activities included building an agent-based model, simulating the researcher’s model and playing a first-person role-play game. Analogical reasoning was engaged in reflections.
The grounded theory coding and analysis and episodic uptake analysis revealed nonlinearity of the knowledge development trajectories. The findings suggest that, prior to the learning, the dyads maintained ten simple Newtonian knowledge elements. After learning, the dyads made progression in developing ten comprehensive CAS knowledge elements. Analyzing the knowledge development trajectories indicated that the dyads experienced difficulties in constructing the CAS knowledge elements when they maintained prior Newtonian knowledge elements. The development trajectory of each knowledge element was gradual, progressing from conceptualization to comprehension and towards knowledge application in the real world. The development trajectories of the different knowledge elements were intertwined.
Further data analysis on how cognitive conflict enabled the learning processes implied nonlinear learning patterns. Cognitive conflict induced by analogical reasoning helped the dyads conceptualized the first CAS knowledge element, whereas cognitive conflict induced by model building and simulation did not. For the dyads who had conceptualized the first CAS knowledge element through analogical reasoning, the discrepancies generated from model building and simulation, from knowledge incompatibility and from game play induced cognitive conflicts and sustained the intertwined knowledge development trajectories.
There are sources of evidence in this study that could potentially extend the conventional conditions for analogical reasoning and cognitive conflict. The literature of analogical reasoning suggests that effective analogical reasoning requires learners’ adequate knowledge on the analogy and the target domain, and analogy’s sufficient degrees of similarities with the target. The learning patterns in this study seemed to suggest that, when the dyads, who lacked CAS knowledge, were conceptualizing the first CAS knowledge element, they did not learn through analogies that had more degrees of similarities; however, they learnt through analogies that had fewer degrees of similarities. Similarly, the findings may also suggest alternative views about the premises for cognitive conflict. The literature suggests that meaningful cognitive conflict requires discrepancies to be credible and relevant, and learners to have more prior knowledge. In this study, the agent-based models provided by the researcher were direct modeling of innovation diffusion, whereas the analogies used in reflections were from domains different from innovation diffusion and were only plausible to be mapped for the dyads to learn innovation diffusion. While the analogies induced valid discrepancy and meaningful cognitive conflict in this study, the model building and simulation did not. The findings in this study also alluded that salient knowledge that mediates learning Complex Systems is perhaps learner dependent and domain specific. The study thus advocates that research on analogical reasoning and cognitive conflict should focus on understanding learners’ meaning-making processes, rather than conditions for analogical reasoning and cognitive conflict.
Based on the findings, this study also espouses that learning Complex Systems perhaps involves meta-complexity: the learning of individual knowledge elements is complex, and the intertwined knowledge development trajectories also exhibit characteristics similar to scale-free network topologies. The implications of meta-complexity for learning design are also discussed to complement the design principles for learning Complex Systems.
- PublicationOpen AccessLearning innovation diffusion as complex adaptive systems through model building, simulation, game play and reflections(2012-07)
;Manu KapurTo effectively foster innovation diffusion, school leaders need to learn innovation diffusion as Complex Adaptive Systems (CAS). In this study, two school leaders formed a dyad to learn both the knowledge about innovation diffusion and the knowledge in fostering innovation diffusion. Agent-based model building, model simulation, game play of a simulation game and reflections were designed as learning activities in this study. In the learning process, the learners developed the following understanding in innovation diffusion: teachers’ adoption decisions are based on limited rationality and local information; teachers have nonlinear influence on each other through social networks; teachers are heterogonous agents; and diffusion is a process of emergence. The learners also learnt to leverage on social networks to foster effective innovation diffusion. While agent-based model building faces challenges for learning CAS in the social science domain, this study shows that engaging learners in reflection activities helps to overcome the challenges. 289 317
- PublicationOpen AccessSchool leaders’ learning of diffusion of innovation through agent based modeling: Coupling modeling and simulation process with learners’ interaction with diffusion system(2008-10)
; ;Chai, Ching SingChen, Der-ThanqIf school diffusion of innovation is viewed as complex adaptive process, how shall we prepare school leaders to be effective diffusion decision makers? Coming from the epistemological belief that knowledge is subjective and embodied, this paper proposes to use Agent Based Modeling (ABM) for learning by focus on learning to “do” diffusion of innovation rather than learning about diffusion of innovation. We therefore recommend to engage school leaders in iterative agent based model development process and to couple it with their interaction in real world diffusion system. With feedback from real world system used for iterative model calibration and validation, the affordances of the agent based model allow school leaders to participate, experience, appropriate, perform and therefore to learn to make effective diffusion decisions in their schools. 112 74
- PublicationOpen AccessInvestigating analogical problem posing as the generative task in the Productive Failure design(2016-06)
; ;Lam, Rachel JaneManu KapurResearch on Productive Failure and preparatory mechanisms has consistently demonstrated a positive learning effect when students generate problem solutions before receiving formal instruction. However, it has been less examined whether the effect still holds when the generative task does not involve problem solving. Using a 2x2 experimental design, this study investigated the effects of generative tasks that involve analogical problem posing (without solving) on learning and transfer. Pedagogical sequence (i.e., generation-first or instruction-first) and type of analogical reasoning task (i.e., generating one’s own analogical problems or generating analogical mappings between given analogical problems) were the two factors manipulated. Preliminary analysis revealed no multivariate effects of the factors. Thus, we discuss the learning mechanisms enacted by analogical reasoning, reliability of the instruments, and the participants’ prior condition as possible reasons and to inform future studies. 384 159
- PublicationOpen AccessDevelopment of a tool for decision making on subject placement in secondary schools
- PublicationOpen AccessLeadership in times of pandemics: Reflections from SingaporeThe COVID-19 pandemic is compressing the timeline for Singapore’s digital transformation in education. Reflecting on the implementation of Home-Based Learning (HBL) during the pandemic, we examine three barriers that inhibit digital transformation and technological implementation in education with leadership considerations: the first order barrier is infrastructural and can be mitigated by leadership foresight; the second order barrier concerns design capabilities of teachers which can be mitigated by tight-but-loose calibration; and the third order barrier deals with sustainability which can be mitigated by ecological leadership. The tight-but-loose calibration optimises the ‘tight’ system-led innovations such as Student Learning Space (SLS) for efficient deployment and for equitable access of high quality online resources for students; and ‘loose’ opportunities for teacher-led innovations on learning designs within and beyond system-led innovations to nurture teacher agency and professionalism. We posit that ecological leadership is key to sustaining deep change together with the ‘tight-but-loose’ system calibration.
- PublicationOpen AccessMulti-level ICT integration for diffusing complex technology-mediated pedagogical innovations
- PublicationOpen AccessCultivating laterality in learning communities – Scaling of innovation through a networked learning community