Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/10497/22805
Title: 
Authors: 
Subjects: 
Error
Variability
Kinovea
Playing level
Pool
Billiards
Issue Date: 
2021
Citation: 
Pan, J. W., Komar, J., & Kong, P. W. (2021). Development of new 9-ball test protocols for assessing expertise in cue sports. BMC Sports Science, Medicine and Rehabilitation, 13, Article 9. https://doi.org/10.1186/s13102-021-00237-9
Dataset: 
https://doi.org/10.25340/R4/ARYSBT
Abstract: 
Background
This study aimed to develop new test protocols for evaluating 9-ball expertise levels in cue sports players.

Methods
Thirty-one male 9-ball players at different playing levels were recruited (recreational group, n = 8; university team, n = 15; national team, n = 8). A 15-ball test was administered to indicate overall performance by counting the number of balls potted. Five skill tests (power control, cue alignment, angle, back spin, and top spin) were conducted to evaluate specific techniques by calculating error distances from pre-set targets using 2D video analysis.

Results
Intra-class correlation analyses revealed excellent intra-rater and inter-rater reliability in four out of five skill tests (ICC > 0.95). Significant between-group differences were found in 15-ball test performance (p <  0.001) and absolute error distances in the angle (p <  0.001), back spin (p = 0.006), and top spin tests (p = 0.045), with the recreational group performing worst while the national team performing best. Greater inter-trial variability was observed in recreational players than the more skilled players (p <  0.005).

Conclusions
In conclusion, the 9-ball test protocols were reliable and could successfully discriminate between different playing levels. Coaches and researchers may employ these protocols to identify errors, monitor training, and rank players.
Description: 
This is the final draft, after peer-review, of a manuscript published in BMC Sports Science, Medicine and Rehabilitation. The published version is available online at https://doi.org/10.1186/s13102-021-00237-9
URI: 
ISSN: 
2052-1847
DOI: 
Project number: 
SUG 12/18 KPW
Grant ID: 
Office of Education Research Start-up Grant
Funding Agency: 
Ministry of Education, Singapore
China Scholarship Council (CSC)
File Permission: 
Open
File Availability: 
With file
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