Now showing 1 - 10 of 121
  • Publication
    Open Access
    Relationships of out-of-school-time mathematics lessons to mathematical literacy in Singapore and Australia
    (2013) ;
    Shaljan Areepattamannil
    This study drawing on data from the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) 2009, examined the relationships of out-of-school-time mathematics lessons to mathematical literacy in Singapore and Australia. Results of two-level hierarchical linear modeling (HLM) analyses revealed that out-of-school-time enrichment lessons in mathematics were not significantly associated with mathematical literacy in Singapore and Australia. Out-of-school-time remedial lessons in mathematics were negatively associated with mathematical literacy in Australia, while such remedial lessons in mathematics were not significantly related to mathematical literacy in Singapore. Learning time in out-of-school-time lessons in mathematics was significantly negatively linked to mathematical literacy in Singapore and Australia. Implications of the findings are discussed.
      153  150
  • Publication
    Open Access
    Graphs - What do they say?
    (1992-09) ;
    Lim, Chien Chong
    The most widespread use of graphs is to illustrate the variation of some aspect of a real situation, be it in medical sciences, economic forecasts, environmental studies or elsewhere and numerate adults ought to comprehend such representations and draw inferences from the data represented. Yet many, if not all, approaches to the teaching of graphs in our schools focus mainly on technical issues - for example, algebraic manipulation, point plotting and reading, filling in entries in tables - at the expense of the meaning which is to be conveyed. 160 secondary three girls were each given an exercise to do on the interpretation of graphs of real life situations to assess their ability to communicate the language of graphs. The worksheets used for the study were taken from the teaching package 'The Language of Graphs' produced by the Shell Centre for Mathematical Education at the University of Nottingham, UK. The findings of the study show that many of the subjects are unable to interpret given graphs of real life situations. The implication that pupils are unable to relate the graphical knowledge that they are taught in school for communication purposes calls for re-examination of the approaches adopted in the teaching of graphs in most if not all schools.
      343  269
  • Publication
    Open Access
    The EPMT Project: A harbinger for teachers' meaningful production of pedagogical knowledge
    Enhancing the pedagogy of mathematics teachers (EPMT) project exemplifies a critical development in the professional development of teachers in many parts of the world. This development reflects a gradual shift in the centre of gravity away from the University-based, "supply-side", "off-line" forms of knowledge production conducted by university researchers for teachers towards an emergent school-based, demand-side, on-line, in situ forms of knowledge production by teachers for teachers. Supporters of this transition do not deny the value of university based research but they do insist that in a knowledge economy, improving the quality of teaching and learning is going to depend increasingly on carefully crafted partnerships between university scholars and classroom teachers. Critically, they also insist that one key outcome of such partnerships ought to be the codification, verification, dissemination and institutionalization of expert teacher knowledge. The aims of the project were three fold. The first was to engage mathematics teachers in professional development to improve their classroom pedagogy and ultimately improve student learning in terms of reasoning and communication skills in mathematics lessons. The second was to create teacher practitioner learning communities at the school level who will work together to advance the knowledge they gain from the professional development modules and also put it into practice; and the third was to enthuse and support teachers to put together their work in print form and support other fellow teachers. Teachers from ten schools participated in the project. This paper describes aspects of the project that makes it a harbinger for teachers' meaningful production of pedagogical knowledge in Singapore.
      160  201
  • Publication
    Open Access
    Who can(‘t) do maths: Boys/girls? An international comparison
    (1999-11)
    Forgasz, Helen J.
    ;
    Leder, Gilah
    ;

    There has been a long held perception that the field of mathematics is more appropriate for males than for females. The construct, mathematics as a male domain, has been considered a critical variable in explanations for females' under-representation in the most demanding mathematics subjects offered at school and higher education, and in related careers. The widely used Fennema-Sherman Mathematics attitude scales [MAS] consist of nine subscales including Mathematics as a male domain [MD]. It has recently been argued that the content of some of the MD items is anachronistic and that responses to others can no longer be reliably interpreted.

    Two versions of a new scale, loosely based on the MD, have been developed and trialed in Australia and Singapore with students in grades 7 to 10. In this paper, we present general findings which indicate changes in perceptions about some aspects of the gendering of mathematics, discuss the similarities and differences in the perceptions of students in the two countries, and the implications of the results obtained for equity in mathematics education . The overall findings contribute an important dimension to the debate in contemporary society on concerns about the educational disadvantage of boys.

      128  126
  • Publication
    Open Access
    Attitudinal outcomes from environmental activities
    Mathematics trails may be seen as field work activities in mathematics both for primary and secondary school pupils. A mathematics trail is just like a nature trail or a fitness trail. Along a predetermined route the participant stops at a number of stops to attempt mathematical questions or challenges relating to the immediate area. The concept of producing mathematics trails has been explored as a way of developing an appreciation and enjoyment of mathematics in everyday settings and popularising mathematics among children, their teachers and parents. Despite this somewhat limited initial ambition mathematics trails seem to have created the beginning of a new philosophy and methodology for extending the teaching and learning of mathematics beyond the bounds of the classroom. In Singapore a number of mathematics trails have been designed to date by the author, inset and preservice teachers for various purposes. This paper will share with conference participants the attitudinal outcomes from such environmental activities. The author feels that mathematics trails can be both fun and stimulating. Mathematics trails also provide pupils an opportunity to use the environment to study mathematics or use mathematics to learn about the environment or use mathematics for the environment.
      375  142
  • Publication
    Open Access
    Singapore primary school TIMSS data: Geometry and measurement, estimation and number sense
    (1999)
    Pereira-Mendoza, Lionel
    ;
    This article is concerning the performance of Singapore students in Third International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS). Singapore students' performance on Geometry and Measurement, Estimation and Number Sense show some clear trends. They are: (1) Primary four students outperform primary three students; (2) On most items Singapore students outperform their corresponding International cohort; (3) Girls outperform boys on Geometry but the results are mixed for Measurement, Estimation and Number Sense; and (4) Boys tend to leave questions blank more often than girls. Finally, the analysis of the data also shows that while students perform well in routine situations, they have difficulty using information in non-familiar contexts and making the transition from the enactive mode to the ikonic mode. This implies that there needs to be a focus on activities involving both familiar and non-familiar contexts as well as a specific emphasis on linking enactive and iconic situations.
      192  500
  • Publication
    Open Access
    A state-of-the-art review on mathematics education in Singapore: An overview
    A state-of-the-art review in mathematics education in Singapore was carried out by a team of researchers in the National Institute of Education in late 1990. The report was published in April 1991. As there has never been a a concerted research agenda for research in mathematics education in Singapore, the studies reviewed originated from the interests of specific individuals or groups. The review was part of a regional effort and commissioned by SEARRAG (Southeast Asian Research Review and Advisory Group). It was predetermined that each country classify the studies into five topical areas of interest (Teaching and Learning, Assessment and Examinations, Teacher Education, Development Projects, and Curriculum Development, Implementation and Evaluation). As bulk of the studies reviewed fell into the category Teaching and Learning, this category was further divided into seven sub-headings, namely affective variables and problem-solving, types and levels of understanding, analysis of errors, low achievers and remediation, learning strategies, use of microcomputers, and other variables. Forty-two selected studies were reviewed, an important criterion for selection being relevance and representativeness of the topical area of interest rather than rigour in methodology or thoroughness in conceptualization. In addition to highlighting the major thrusts and strengths of research on mathematics education during the last decade or so, the review has pointed to gaps or areas requiring further attention.
      84  82
  • Publication
    Open Access
    TIMSS - students' and teachers' perspectives on mathematics instruction in Singapore schools
    As part of the Third International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS), 14 140 primary school students and 8238 secondary school students in Singapore completed the student questionnaire in 1994. This questionnaire sought their perceptions on how they were learning mathematics in school, spending their time in and out of school and also information on some background variables such as family size, expectations of parents and teachers, and socio-economic status. As part of the same study 380 primaiy school teachers and 272 secondary school teachers too completed the teacher questionnaire in 1994. These teachers were then teaching mathematics to the students in the study. The teacher questionnaire sought data on background variables such as age, gender, qualifications, and so on; and on pedagogical practices and concerns of the teachers. This paper will report on the findings of the surveys and shed light on students' and teachers 'perspectives on mathematics instruction in Singapore schools (primary and secondary).
      158  396
  • Publication
    Open Access
      154  913